To be eligible to become a Canadian citizen, you must meet the conditions in all these areas:
Determine your eligibility
permanent resident status
time you have lived in Canada (residence)
income tax filing
how well you know Canada
You must be at least 18 years old to apply.
To apply for citizenship for a child under 18:
you must be the child’s parent, adoptive parent or legal guardian
the child must be a permanent resident
one parent must be a Canadian citizen or apply to become a citizen at the same time (this also applies to adoptive parents)
Permanent resident status
You must have permanent resident (PR) status in Canada, have no unfulfilled conditions related to that status, and your PR status must not be in question. This means you must not:
be under a removal order (an order from Canadian officials to leave Canada)
be under review for immigration or fraud reasons
have certain unfulfilled conditions related to your PR status
You do not need to have a PR card to apply for citizenship. If you have a PR card, but it is expired, you can still apply for citizenship.
Time you have lived in Canada
You must have been physically present in Canada as a permanent resident for at least 1,095 days during the five years immediately before the date of your application. .
When calculating how long you have lived in Canada, you can only count time spent after you became a permanent resident of Canada.
Find out if you have lived in Canada long enough to apply to become a citizen.
Income tax filing
You must have met your personal income tax filing obligations in three taxation years that are fully or partially within the five years immediately before the date you apply.
Canada has two official languages—English and French. To become a citizen, you must show that you have adequate knowledge of one of these languages. In general, this means you can:
take part in short, everyday conversations about common topics
understand simple instructions, questions and directions
use basic grammar, including simple structures and tenses
show that you know enough common words and phrases to answer questions and express yourself
If you are 18 to 54 years of age, you must send documents with your citizenship application that prove you can speak and listen in English or French at this level. Use our wizard to see if you have the proof we will accept. The citizenship application guide also contains the type of proof we will accept.
Second, we will note how well you communicate to staff or a citizenship officer during your interview.
A citizenship officer will make the final decision on your application, including how well you can communicate in English or French.
Visit the acceptable language proof to apply for citizenship wizard.
How well you know Canada
To become a citizen, you must understand the rights, responsibilities and privileges of citizenship, such as voting in elections and obeying the law. You must also show, in English or French, that you understand Canada’s:
If you are 14 to 64 years of age, when you apply for citizenship, you will need to take a citizenship test to show you have adequate knowledge of Canada and the responsibilities and privileges of citizenship. It is usually a written test, but it is sometimes taken orally with a citizenship officer. All you need to know for the test is in our free study guide, Discover Canada: The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship. We will send you a copy of it once we get your application. The questions in the citizenship test are based on this study guide.
If you have committed a crime in or outside Canada you may not be eligible to become a Canadian citizen for a period of time. For example if you:
have been convicted of an indictable offence in Canada or an offence outside Canada in the four years before applying for citizenship
are in prison, on parole or on probation in Canada, or are serving a sentence outside Canada
are charged with, on trial for, or involved in an appeal of an indictable offence in Canada, or an offence outside Canada
Time in prison or on parole does not count as time you have lived in Canada. Time on probation also does not count if you were convicted of a crime.
For more information, please contact us.